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Innate Immune Sensing and Its Roots:  The Story of Endotoxin 

Beutler B, Rietschel ET.
Nat Rev Immunol. 2003 Feb;3(2):169-76. Review.

How does the host sense pathogens? Our present concepts grew directly from longstanding efforts to understand infectious disease: how microbes harm the host, what molecules are sensed and, ultimately, the nature of the receptors that the host uses. The discovery of the host sensors — the Toll-like receptors — was rooted in chemical, biological and genetic analyses that centred on a bacterial poison, termed endotoxin...
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