Editorial 8/201425 September, 2014
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From the symposium entitled "Endotoxin, TLR4 signaling and beyond" held on the 21st of August 2013


This Special Issue contains some contributions to the one-day symposium entitled “Endotoxin, TLR4 signaling and beyond” held on the 21st of August 2013 at Villa Forno, Cinisello Balsamo (Milan, Italy) as a satellite meeting (SM7) of the International Congress of Immunology (ICI 2013) in Milano. The International Endotoxin and Innate Immunity Society (IEIIS), the Italian Society of Immunology, Clinical Immunology and Allergology (SIICA), and the Milano- Bicocca University promoted and co-hosted this meeting.

The one-day symposium was focused on the mechanisms of microbial ligand biogenesis and presentation to Toll-Like Recep- tors (TLRs, in particular TLR4), receptor activation and signal transduction, and the translation of these new insights to novel immune-pharmacologic interventions.

This international forum brought together scientists from Europe and USA with the aim of presenting and discussing advances in understanding of the structural, molecular, biochemical, and cel- lular bases of microbial ligand mobilization and TLR function with a particular emphasis on Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin and TLR4.

In the Special Issue are reported some topics discussed dur- ing the meeting covering the topics of bacterial endotoxin structure determination and endotoxin–receptor interaction and TLR4 signaling.

In an original research article, A. Molinaro and coworkers report on the elucidation of the structure and the biological activity of the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) isolated from the persistent cystic fibrosis (CF) isolate P. aeruginosa strain RP73. The paper gives orig- inal insights in the adaptation mechanism of the pathogen in the CF environment thus opening new perspectives to the therapeutic intervention.

C.E. Bryant, M. Symmonds and N.J. Gay insightfully discuss what is known about the macromolecular complexes thought to be important for TLR4 signaling and point out some open ques- tions to be addressed in the future: how signaling complexes form within the living cell, how many of each signaling protein is within the intracellular Myddosome and whether the stoichiometry can vary in a ligand-dependent manner.

R. Jerala and A. Oblak present in a comprehensive and clear review the current knowledge regarding lipid A diversity and species-specific activation of the MD-2/TLR4 receptor complex in different species (e.g. human, mouse or equine) by lipid A varieties.


Peri, F., et al., Editorial. Mol. Immunol. (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2014.09.001

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