The symposium was a satellite meeting of the 15th International Congress of Immunology (Milano, Italy) held at the Villa Forno, Cinsella Balsamo in Milano. "The high quality of speakers, a good blend between immunology, structural biology, biochemistry and chemistry, and the charming ambience of the ancient Villa Forno have greatly contributed to this success." read more.

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In Memory of Theresa Gioannini, PhD

We lost a wonderful research scientist and colleague yesterday. Here is a short remembrance of Theresa's accomplishments...

IEIIS Newsletter 19(1)

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Brittany NeedhamMeet Brittany Needham

The primary focus of Brittany's research is the study of the Gram-negative bacterial surface, which is covered with a complex molecule called lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that provides a barrier against the often-hostile environment encountered by a bacterial cell. The bioactive portion of LDS that anchors the molecule into the cell's surfaceis lipid A (endotoxin). Read more.


Innate Immunity Cover Innate Immunity offers a highly visible forum for quality research on all aspects of endotoxin, a rapid turnaround time, and 25 free reprints. A subscription includes free online access to the full text of Innate Immunity.

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Innate immune sensing and its roots: the story of endotoxin. 

Beutler B, Rietschel ET.
Nat Rev Immunol. 2003 Feb;3(2):169-76. Review.

How does the host sense pathogens? Our present concepts grew directly from longstanding efforts to understand infectious disease: how microbes harm the host, what molecules are sensed and, ultimately, the nature of the receptors that the host uses. The discovery of the host sensors — the Toll-like receptors — was rooted in chemical, biological and genetic analyses that centred on a bacterial poison, termed endotoxin. Read More